What are 4 risk factors for diabetes?

What are 4 risk factors for diabetes?

What are 4 risk factors for diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects around 8.5% of the population worldwide, while according to the latest estimates in Italy we are at 6%. The progressive aging of the population and the lifestyle of industrialized countries, characterized by an incorrect diet and an increase in overweight and obesity, has led over the decades to an increase in type 2 diabetes diagnoses both in the general population and among younger individuals., factors for diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder which, once developed, significantly affects the lives of those who suffer from it. This disease depends on a condition of hyperglycemia , caused by the body’s difficulty in producing or using insulin adequately , the hormone produced by the cells of the pancreas responsible for keeping blood sugar levels under control. Unfortunately, even today there is no cure
for type 2 diabetes , only the possibility of controlling and maintaining blood sugar at optimal levels. For this reason it is important that the public is informed about risk factors and about the possibilities of taking active action to prevent their onset., factors for diabetes.

Let’s go deeper into the topic with Dr. Marco Mirani , diabetologist at Humanitas., factors for diabetes.

Overweight, obesity and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes

One of the causes of a greater diffusion of type 2 diabetes among young people is certainly the increase in overweight and obesity that has been recorded among the population of the most industrialized countries. In Italy we are reaching dramatic numbers, in fact it is estimated that 35% of the population is overweight and 11% frankly obese. A high body mass index (in English Body Mass Index , BMI), i.e. the ratio between body weight and height, together with excess abdominal fat and high levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood are directly linked to the risk of developing diabetes type 2 mellitus., factors for diabetes.

Other risk factors associated with the development of diabetes are: a sedentary lifestyle , an unbalanced diet , a family history of the disease or, in women, a history of gestational diabetes . Finally, natural aging is also considered a risk factor for diabetes and for this reason, after the age of 45, it is necessary to undergo periodic checks., factors for diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes: what are the symptoms?

Type 2 diabetes can remain silent for a very long period and for this reason be diagnosed years late , increasing the risk of developing associated complications, such as cardiovascular complications , nephropathy , neuropathy , eyesight and even degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer ‘s .

The typical symptoms of type 2 diabetes (which can manifest acutely even some time after the actual onset of the disease) are: fatigue , increased hunger , increased thirst associated with an increase in urinary volume, and a decrease in body weight.  

If the doctor notices alarm bells of suspected diabetes, he will instruct the patient to undergo blood tests , prescribing in particular the dosage of blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin in the blood.

Can diabetes be prevented?

In the field of prevention, it is possible to actively act on the modifiable risk factors of the disease. Keeping your weight under control and having an active life , in which you exercise regularly (about 3 times a week if at high intensity or every day for 30 minutes if at low intensity), is the most important precaution against the development of diabetes. It is also very important to have a balanced diet , low in saturated fats, sugars and processed foods and rich in fruit and vegetables . Lastly , cigarette smoke should also be avoided .considered a risk factor not only for diabetes but also for the cardiovascular diseases associated with it, as well as being the main cause of some forms of cancer.
This is a series of particularly relevant precautions: in fact, various studies have shown that a change in lifestyle is more effective in controlling blood sugar than drug therapy.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus: treatment options

In recent years, the treatment of type 2 diabetes has seen the development of new therapeutic possibilities, particularly useful for keeping cardiovascular risk under control , which is associated with the greater mortality risks related to type 2 diabetes.
Among these drugs it is good to remember the analogues of GLP-1(Glucagon-like peptide 1) and glyflozins. The former mimic the effects of GLP-1, a hormone that is produced by intestinal cells at the same time as digestion and designed to simplify the secretion of insulin, which is deficient in diabetics. The second, gliflozines or sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, help the body excrete glucose through the urine, also protecting against the risk of progression of diabetic nephropathy

The plurality of pharmacological therapies available to us today makes it possible for the specialist to evaluate the treatment most suited to the patient’s needs, the characteristics of the disease and his lifestyle on a case-by-case basis.

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