What is Internet technology used for?

What is Internet technology used for?

What is Internet technology used for?

Internet technology

Refers to a kind of information technology developed and established on the basis of computer technology [1] . Internet technology connects different devices to each other through the wide area network of the computer network, speeds up the transmission speed of information and broadens the channels for obtaining information, promotes the development of various software applications, and changes people’s life and learning methods The widespread application of Internet technology is a sign of entering the information society.
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Accounting is the study of how a company recognizes revenue and assets within a certain business cycle. In addition to preparing financial statements and recording business transactions, accountants are more importantly able to participate in mergers between companies, quality management, application of information technology in finance, taxation strategies, and management decision-making activities of many companies. The professional field of accounting involves a wide range of areas: authentication, auditing, taxation, corporate accounting, management accounting, financial management, bankruptcy liquidation, forensic accounting, budget formulation, business consulting, etc. are all areas that accounting majors will be involved in.
The media is a medium that disseminates various information.
Internet technology
Internet technology refers to a kind of information technology developed and established on the basis of computer technology. Internet technology connects different devices to each other through the wide area network of the computer network, speeds up the transmission speed of information and broadens the channels for obtaining information, promotes the development of various software applications, and changes people’s life and learning methods. The widespread application of Internet technology is a sign of entering the information society.
Translation is an undergraduate major in Chinese colleges and universities.
Chinese name
Internet technology
Foreign name
Internet Technology
information technology built on computer technology
hardware, software, applications
Change the ecological layout of traditional industries

concept range

Internet technology has three meanings, referring to hardware, software and applications.
The first layer is hardware , which mainly refers to hosts and network communication devices for data storage , processing and transmission ;
The second layer refers to software, including various software that can be used to collect, store, retrieve , analyze, apply, and evaluate information, including what we usually refer to as ERP ( Enterprise Resource Planning ), CRM ( Customer Relationship Management ), SCM ( Supply chain management) and other commercial management software , including WF ( workflow ) management software used to strengthen process management, DW/DM (data warehouse and data mining) software for auxiliary analysis, etc.;
The third layer refers to the application, which refers to the collection, storage , retrieval, analysis, application, evaluation and use of various information, including the application of ERP, CRM, SCM and other software to directly assist decision-making, as well as the use of other decision-making analysis models or the use of DW/DM, etc. Technical means are used to further improve the quality of analysis and assist decision makers in making decisions (emphasize that it is only to assist rather than replace human decision-making).
Some people understand that the Internet technology combines the first two layers into one, which refers to the storage, processing and transmission of information, and the latter refers to the application of information; soft. Usually the third layer has not received enough attention, but in fact, only when the information is effectively used can the value of IT be brought into full play, and the goal of informatization can be truly realized. Informatization itself is not a goal, it is just a better means to achieve the goal in the current era.
What does Carl mean by internet technology? In that article, he did not explicitly mention it, but he mentioned the core functions of information technology- data storage , processing and transmission. Judging from the logic of his reasoning, that is, it was pushed from the construction of infrastructure such as steam engines, railways, telegraphs and telephones, and electricity. He also used Moore’s Law to support the development of mainframes and optical fiber.

technical term

Data (Data) = factual records, for example, the sales of Series A products in East China in the last quarter were 1.2 million.
Information (Information) = data + meaning, for example, in the last quarter, the sales of Series A products in East China decreased by 25% compared with the same period.
Intelligence = information + understanding and reasoning, such as analyzing the reason is that the sales unit in the East China region is not good, or the series A product has entered a recession period, or the company’s overall marketing activities are lagging behind, caused by competitors’ strong promotions ? or other reasons.
Knowledge (Knowledge) = problem-solving skills (skill).
Wisdom = Knowledge Selection (Selection) There may be many kinds of action plans to deal with, but (strategy) which one * Wisdom to choose. Actions in turn generate new transaction date.

main components

The widespread application of Internet technology is a sign of entering the information society. Different people and different books explain it differently. But a point of view that basically everyone agrees is that IT consists of the following three parts:
—–Sensing technology This is the extension and expansion of human sensory organs, the most obvious example is the barcode reader;
—– Communication technology This is the extension and expansion of the human nervous system, which undertakes the function of transmitting information;
—–Computer technology is the extension and expansion of human brain functions, which undertakes the function of processing information.
The so-called informatization is the use of information technology to transform other industries and industries, thereby improving the efficiency of enterprises. Information technology has assumed the role of a powerful tool in this process.
By the way, what is the IT industry? There is a general classification for your reference:
Internet technology basic technology provides IC research and development, software writing such as INTEL, MS, etc.;
Internet technology productization, components, components, assembly manufacturing such as elite, public, etc.;
Internet technology product integration, computer and peripheral manufacturers. Such as: Lenovo, IBM;
Systematization of Internet technology products, solutions, information systems. Such as: Huawei, HP;
Circulation, channels, and sales of Internet technology products. Such as: Digital China;
Internet technology product service, consulting service and after-sales service. Such as: Blue Express;
Internet technology industry public opinion support, IT media. Such as: CCW, CCID;
Third-party services for the Internet technology industry and various supporting services. Such as: legal advice, PR services;
Internet technology reserve personnel training, various colleges and universities. Such as: computer science ;
Internet technology industry cooperation organizations, various associations, gatherings.
The concept of integration testing Integration testing, also known as assembly testing or joint testing, is based on unit testing, testing the various parts in the process of assembling all software units into modules, subsystems or systems according to the requirements of the outline design specification. Whether the work reaches or realizes the corresponding technical indicators and required activities. Practice has shown that although some modules can work independently, it does not guarantee that they can work normally when connected. Some problems that cannot be reflected locally may be exposed globally. Integration tests are a logical extension of unit tests. Its simplest form is: combine two tested units into a component, and test the interface between them [2]  . The whole cycle of integration testing will systematically include software acceptance testing, end-to-end testing, TV image synthesis testing, system testing , user acceptance testing , multi-sport comprehensive testing and technical drills, etc. Ensure that each IT system has the required functions and reliability.

Development History

The British mathematician AMTuring invented the Turing machine and made theoretical preparations for modern computer hardware and software.
The world’s first electronic computer ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) was successfully developed. It has 300 vacuum tubes and uses binary . The basic architecture is the same as that of modern computers.
The British computer “giant” goes into operation. However, it was kept secret until 1970.
The father of modern computers: Von Neumann first proposed the concept of stored program computers, namely “Von Neumann machines”.
On February 10, the electronic digital integrating machine and computer were born. It is equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes, with a total weight of 30 tons and a cost of nearly 500,000 US dollars. It is the world’s first multifunctional, all-electronic digital computer , which can perform thousands of multiplication operations per minute.
In May, the University of Cambridge successfully developed the first von Neumann machine EDSAC.
On December 23, Bell Telephone Laboratories in the United States invented the world’s first transistor.
The University of Manchester developed the world’s first stored program machine Baby.
Engineering Research Associates builds the world’s first commercial computer, the ERA 1101.
The UNIVAC1, the first digital computer created for the US Census.
Grace Hopper sketched out the first ” compiler ” blueprint, that is, all programs are translated into machine language before execution , making a significant contribution to the commercial use of computers.
Grace Hopper developed the A-3 compiler Math-Matic.
The world’s first computer using transistor components was successfully developed.
The first transatlantic telephone cable is laid.
Bell Laboratories develops a videophone prototype.
IBM designed the world’s first computer hard drive, the RAMAC 350, with a diameter of 24 inches and a total capacity of 5 megabytes .
IBM developed the FORTRAN language.
The first commercially available tube computer, the Univac Model 80, is released.
MIT John McCarthy started developing the Lisp language and finished it in 1960.
The world’s first integrated circuit came out.
Published the Cobol language specification, completed in 1961.
IBM releases the IBM System/360 computer.
DEC launched the world’s first standard minicomputer, the PDP-8, which was truly recognized by the industry.
Thomas E.Kurtz and John Kemeny of Dartmouth College in the United States developed the Basic language .
The world’s first program-controlled telephone exchange — Bell System No. 1 electronic exchange in the United States came out.
Intelsat launched a half-experimental, half-utility geostationary (synchronous) communications satellite, marking the beginning of the era of geostationary satellite communications.
The American “Computerworld” newspaper was launched.
IBM introduces the world’s first floppy disk , 32 inches in diameter.
Njklaus Wirth of Switzerland began to develop the Pascal language on the basis of Algol, which was completed in 1971.
IBM developed the world’s first database management system IMS.
OJDahl and K.Nygard of the Norwegian Computing Center published the first object-oriented language Simula 67.
Bell Labs developed Unix, the first multi-tasking and multi-user computer time-sharing system in assembly language.
IBM created a software marketplace by allowing customers to buy its software and hardware separately.
The U.S. Department of Defense begins work on ARPANET , which is considered the beginning of the Internet.
Ken Thompson and Dennis M. Ritchie of Bell Laboratories in the United States began to develop the Unix operating system.
The optical fiber with a transmission loss of only 20 dB/km and the semiconductor laser that can work continuously at room temperature have been successfully developed, and optical fiber communication is becoming practical.
Intel develops the world’s first microprocessor , the 4004.
Niklaus Wirth develops the Pascal language.
Gary Starkweather develops the world’s first laser printer in his lab at Xerox .
Dennis Ritchie of Bell Laboratories developed the C language .
The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) first proposed the concept of ISDN.
Alain Colmerauer of Luminy-Marseilles University in France developed the Prolog language .
Martin Cooper invented the cell phone and became the first person to use a mobile phone.
Intel introduces the 8080 microprocessor, which is used in the world’s first commercial PC.
Zilog Corporation introduced the processor Z-80.
The first commercially successful PC Altair 8800 was successfully developed.
IBM first proposed the computer reduced instruction set .
Xerox launches its first workstation prototype, the Xerox Alto.
In the first computer chess championship, the Russian program KAISASA won.
Bill Gates and Paul Allen developed the world’s first standard microcomputer software Basic for Altair, and founded Microsoft.
Xerox and Stanford University jointly launched ” Ethernet “. This network became the first industry-standard product for local area networks.
The first commercially successful supercomputer Cray-1 was successfully developed, with a calculation speed of 250 million operations per second.
Hayes introduces the first PC modem .
The Apple II, the first PC with a color display, is officially unveiled.
The world’s first commercial optical fiber communication system was opened between two telephone offices (7 kilometers apart) in Chicago, USA .
TCP is divided into TCP and IP.
The world’s first portable computer, the Osborne, is launched.
On August 12, the IBM PC named after ” Personal Computer (PC)” was launched for the first time. It uses Intel’s 8088 processor and Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system.
Ashton-Tate launched dBase II.
Ian Murphy, a 23-year-old who calls himself Captain Zap, infiltrated the computer systems of the White House, the Pentagon and BellSouth.
The cellular mobile phone communication system is put into commercial use.
Apple launches the Apple Macintosh machine.
Domain Name System was created.
Founded by MIPS Computer Systems Corporation, and began to develop the RISC architecture with Stanford University .
HP launches a laser printer for personal use.
Intel launched the 386 microprocessor.
The National Science Foundation of the United States created NSFnet with a backbone network speed of 56KB/sec.
year 1987
IBM and Microsoft release OS/2 1.0.
Kodak introduces the world’s first megapixel commercial digital camera.
On November 1, when Robert Morris, a graduate student at Cornell University in the United States , was testing the feasibility of computer viruses in ARPANET, he released an experimental network worm program. Within 8 hours, this program invaded 3000~ 6,000 VAX machines and Sun computers running the Unix operating system caused serious damage. Morris was both a virus maker and the first hacker on the Internet.
The first transatlantic submarine communication cable (TAT-8) system was successfully laid.
in 1989
The United States launches the first working Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite.
British scientist Timothy Berners Lee develops the World Wide Web.
IBM releases RISC-based RS/6000 .
World Wide Web software developed successfully.
Internet search program Archie comes out at McGill University.
The earliest LAN switch was successfully developed.
year 1991
Linus Torvalds, a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland , developed the Linux operating system and distributed it as free software.
On March 22, Intel launched the 5th generation chip Pentium processor.
Peter de Jager’s “The End of the Year 2000” article in Computerworld warns of the dangers and costs of solving the Y2K problem.
Microsoft officially releases Windows NT.
US Netscape announced the browser Navigator for the Internet.
The Internet entered the era of commoditization.
the year 1995
Microsoft launches Windows 95, a 32-bit desktop operating system .
Microsoft launched the Internet browser Internet Explorer.
IP telephony debuts and VocalTec launches Internet Phone client software.
The world’s first commercial CDMA mobile communication network was launched in Hong Kong.
Sun introduced the Java language .
Larry Ellison, president of Oracle Corporation , proposed the concept of network computer (NC).
Amazon sells the first book on the Internet.
Some internet-related companies went public. Netscape becomes the third largest Nasdaq IPO by stock value.
Domain name registration is no longer free and costs $50 per year.
34 famous universities in the United States initiated the research and development of the “Next Generation Internet” project in Chicago .
The advent of rewritable compact disc (CD-RW) technology.
The PDA product Palm Pilot 1000 was launched.
The chess software on the IBM “Deep Blue” machine defeated the world chess champion Gary Kasparov for the first time.
The IETF proposes the IPv6 standard.
Yahoo and Amazon were successfully listed.
In the year of e-commerce development, there were more than 100,000 online retailers. As of the end of 1997, Cisco’s network equipment sales on the Web site were 3 billion US dollars, and the daily PC sales on the Dell website reached 1 million US dollars. In 1997, 39% of Cisco’s $6.4 billion in total revenue came from its Web site.
iMac Apple computer available.
Larry Page and Sergey Brin create Google, which becomes the most widely used Internet search engine.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) broadcast digital television programs for the first time in the world.
The “Iridium” system began to provide personal communication business services to the world.
On January 26, Compaq acquired DEC for $9.6 billion.
Canada’s Northern Telecom acquired Bay of the United States for $9.1 billion.
On October 19, the U.S. Federal Court decided to formally hear the antitrust lawsuit brought by the U.S. Department of Justice and 20 state governments against Microsoft .
In November, service provider American Online acquired Netscape Communications for $4.2 billion.
Year 1999
On January 14, Lucent Technologies announced the acquisition of Ascend for US$24 billion.
On May 17, the world’s largest online fashion retailer and the most well-funded .com company in Europe announced its bankruptcy. At least 130 Internet companies in the United States have closed down because their funds have dried up.
The growth rate of the US IT market slowed down for the first time in nine years.
On April 24, IBM announced the acquisition of Informix’s database business for $1 billion in cash.
On May 29, Intel’s first 64-bit processor chip, Itanium, was officially released.
On August 28, Microsoft released the first 64-bit Windows operating system Windows Advanced Server Limited Edition.
On September 4, HP announced that it would acquire Compaq for $25 billion in stock .
In September, NTT DoCoMo took the lead in launching 3G services in the world.
On October 25, Microsoft released Windows XP.
In December, NTT Corporation announced that it will jointly conduct grid computing experiments with Intel and SGI Corporation.
2002: In May, the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard organization approved the final draft of the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard.
IBM announced a $1 billion investment in support of Linux.
The -2.3% growth rate made 2002 the worst year ever for the IT industry, IDC said.
IBM announced that it will invest $10 billion in On Demand computing .
The Nasdaq fell to levels last seen six years ago before the rise of dotcoms.
2003: In March, SCO sued IBM for “improper use of the company’s proprietary Linux operating system”.
On March 12, Intel Corporation simultaneously released its latest generation of mobile computing technology Centrino (Centrino) in the world.
AMD launched AMD Athlon 64-bit microprocessors for desktop and mobile computing platforms respectively.
Apple launched an online music service that sold 1 million songs at 99 cents a song within the first week of opening.
On January 14 , 2004 , the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) standard organization EPCgloba claimed to have determined the first global standard to accelerate companies’ adoption of RFID technology to improve their supply chain operations.
On April 2, Sun Corporation of the United States announced that it had reached a ten-year cooperation agreement with Microsoft Corporation , and settled all pending lawsuits. Under the agreement, Microsoft will pay Sun $700 million to resolve all outstanding antitrust issues and another $900 million to resolve all patent issues. On June 28, Intel launched a new platform system based on 32/64-bit Xeon processors.
2005: Video-sharing site YouTube launches.
2006: The number of Internet users worldwide exceeds 1 billion.
2007: Apple launches the iPhone, bringing wireless Internet access to millions of people.
2008: The number of Internet users in the world exceeds 1.5 billion, and the number of Internet users in China reaches 250 million, surpassing the United States to become the number one in the world. The developers of Netscape no longer provided support for the groundbreaking browser, although its offshoot, Firefox, was still going strong. Major airlines have strengthened the deployment of Internet services on flights.
2009: The Seattle Post-Intelligencer becomes the first major daily to move entirely online. Google has announced that it will develop a free computer operating system designed for user experiences that primarily occur online. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China issued three third-generation mobile communication (3G) licenses for China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom.
On March 23, 2010, Google announced that it would transfer its search service in China from the mainland to Hong Kong.
Since March 2010, group-buying websites have gradually emerged in China. Online group-buying has the advantages of large discounts and small payments. According to the statistics of China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), by the end of 2010, the number of online group buying users in China reached 18.75 million.
In March 2010, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television issued the first batch of three Internet TV licenses .
On May 31, 2010, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce officially announced the ” Interim Measures for the Administration of Online Commodity Transactions and Related Services “.
On June 3, 2010, the Ministry of Culture announced the ” Interim Measures for the Administration of Online Games “, which is China’s first departmental regulation for the management of online games.
On June 8, 2010, the State Council Information Office published the white paper “China’s Internet Status” for the first time, explaining the basic policies of the Chinese government on the Internet: “Active utilization, scientific development, management according to law, and security assurance.”
On June 14, 2010, the People’s Bank of China announced the ” Administrative Measures for Payment Services of Non-Financial Institutions “. The “Measures” incorporate online payment into supervision.
On June 25, 2010, the 38th Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) annual meeting passed a resolution to incorporate the “.中国” domain name into the global Internet root domain name system. On July 10, the “.中国” domain name was officially written into the root domain name system (DNS) of the global Internet.
On September 8, 2010, the People’s Daily Online and the Communist Party of China News Network officially launched “Straight to Zhongnanhai – Central Leaders and Central Organization Message Board”. The message board emphasizes interactivity, and aims to allow netizens to confide in the central leaders and put forward opinions and suggestions to the central agencies.
On October 9, 2010, the General Administration of Press and Publication issued the “Opinions of the General Administration of Press and Publication on the Development of the E-book Industry”, proposing to establish an e-book industry access system in accordance with laws and regulations, and to implement e-book-related businesses in accordance with the law. Category approval and management.
On October 29, 2010, Beijing Qihoo Technology Co., Ltd. launched a security tool called “Koukou Bodyguard”. On November 3, Shenzhen Tencent Computer System Co., Ltd. pointed out that “Koukou Bodyguard” hijacked the security module of QQ. And decided to stop running QQ software on the computer with 360 software installed. On November 4, the competent government department intervened in the investigation. With the intervention of the relevant department, the software of the two parties was restored to be compatible.
From November 7th to 12th, 2010, the 79th meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was held in Beijing. This is the IETF meeting
In 2010, the social influence of Internet public opinion deepened, and a series of incidents such as “Wangjialing Mine Disaster Rescue”, “Fang Zhouzi’s Crackdown on Counterfeiting”, “Yihuang Forced Demolition and Self-immolation”, “Li Gang’s Son Drunken Driving and Hitting People” and other incidents caused widespread social outcry after being exposed on the Internet. focus on. Statistics from China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) show that as of December 31, 2010, the number of Internet users in China reached 457 million, of which 303 million were mobile Internet users. The number of IPv4 addresses reached 278 million, the total number of domain names was 8.66 million, of which the number of .CN domain names was 4.35 million, the number of websites was 1.91 million, and the international export bandwidth reached 1,098,957Mbps.
The big event in 2011 that transcended technology was the death of Steve Jobs. Google’s foray into the social space. Google bought Motorola, Microsoft bought Skype, and other big deals.
August 16, 2012: Qihoo 360 launched comprehensive search.
August 23, 2012: Online video providers Youku and Tudou announced their merger into: Youku Tudou.
On December 4, 2013, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially issued 4G licenses to the three major operators, marking that mainland China has officially entered the 4G era, and the development of mobile Internet applications and related industries will usher in a new round of climax.
In 2014, Alibaba went public in the United States, which was the largest IPO in the history of the United States. Wuzhen hosted the first World Internet Conference.
In 2015, Microsoft Windows 10 realized the unification of multiple platform operating systems for computers, smartphones, tablets, and game consoles. And in 2015, Microsoft needs to encourage third-party app developers to create what Microsoft calls “universal software” for the operating system. In 2015, Dell announced that it would spend nearly $70 billion to acquire storage manufacturer EMC. This major news brought the personal computer giant Dell back to the media spotlight. The acquisition has progressed slowly, and in 2016, Dell still needs to explain its motivations for the acquisition to shareholders and the outside world. In March 2015, “Internet +” was included in the government work report, which became a major measure at the national level in my country. It is a dual engine for accelerating institutional reform, implementing innovation-driven strategies, creating mass entrepreneurship, mass innovation, and increasing public products and public services. ” is of great significance. In July 2015, the State Council issued the “Guiding Opinions on Actively Promoting “Internet+” Actions”, which clearly pointed out that 11 key action areas such as “Internet+” innovation and entrepreneurship, collaborative manufacturing, modern agriculture, and e-commerce will be used as development direction.
In 2016, in the field of artificial intelligence, AlphaGo defeated Li Shishi, Baidu launched unmanned vehicles, and the launch of IBM, Microsoft, and Facebook artificial intelligence platforms were all very important events. In China, large Internet companies represented by BAT are also gradually deploying artificial intelligence.
The blockchain was invented “accidentally”. The inventor of the blockchain, Satoshi Nakamoto, did not invent the blockchain for the sake of inventing the blockchain. Blockchain is a technology that has gradually been discovered by people along with the birth of Bitcoin.
2016 is also the first year of blockchain development, and various venture capitals have invested billions of dollars in blockchain startups and projects. Foreign IBM, Deloitte, Deutsche Bank, etc. have released their own blockchain designs, and domestic first-line financial and Internet companies, such as Wanxiang Finance, LeTV Finance, Ping An Finance, etc., have also joined this technological feast.
In December 2017, the number of netizens in my country reached 772 million, with 40.74 million newly added netizens. The Internet penetration rate is 55.8%, an increase of 2.6 percentage points compared to 2016.
As of December 2017, the number of mobile Internet users in my country reached 753 million, an increase of 57.34 million compared with 2016. The proportion of Internet users using mobile phones to access the Internet has increased from 95.1% in 2016 to 97.5%.
As of December 2017, the scale of online shopping users in my country reached 533 million, an increase of 14.3% over 2016, accounting for 69.1% of the total Internet users. The number of mobile online shopping users reached 506 million, a year-on-year increase of 14.7%, and the usage ratio increased to 67.2%.
As of December 2017, the number of online live broadcast users in my country reached 422 million, an increase of 22.6% over 2016. Among them, the number of game live broadcast users reached 224 million, an increase of 77.56 million compared with the end of 2016.
As of December 2017, the number of domestic users of shared bicycles has reached 221 million, accounting for 28.6% of the total Internet users. The number of users has increased by 115 million in half a year, with a growth rate of 108.1%.
As of December 2017, the total number of Chinese cyberspace unicorn companies reached 77.
As of December 2017, China had 592 artificial intelligence companies.
Artificial intelligence is one of the most popular technological words in 2018. Operators, Internet companies , IT companies, mobile phone manufacturers, etc. all hope to use AI to realize the transformation of networks, products and solutions. Baidu is still strong in the field of artificial intelligence, and many well-known Internet companies have increased their stake in this field.
Huawei is proud of the acceleration of 5G commercial use: With the acceleration of 5G commercial use, the industry is paying more and more attention to 5G transport. In 2018, both standard organizations, operators, and equipment vendors have made critical new progress in the field of 5G transport. China Mobile, China Telecom, and China Unicom have successively released 5G-related industry white papers. Huawei’s 5G technological advantages are worth looking forward to!
Domestic mobile phone brands are gradually rising. In 2018, domestic mobile phones can be described as polarized. They are stronger than Huawei, which shipped 200 million units and entered the top five in the European market. Xiaomi shipped 100 million units, accounting for about 25% of the Indian market, and OPPO and vivo, which have strong sales , and they are all making a strong international deployment, competing with Apple and Samsung; and this year, Gionee went bankrupt, and the hammer has been shaky recently, not to mention that it has not heard the voice of other mobile phone brands for a long time; the game industry ushered in the dawn of misery; the Internet Car-making boom, less delivery; the sharing economy is becoming more rational.

computer network

Computer network refers to the connection of multiple computers with independent functions in different geographical locations and their external devices through communication lines, and realizes resource sharing and information sharing under the management and coordination of network operating systems, network management software and network communication protocols. delivered computer system.
Since the appearance of computer network, its development speed and wide application are astonishing. Throughout the development of computer networks, it has roughly gone through the following four stages:
stage of birth
The first-generation computer network before the mid-1960s was a remote online system centered on a single computer. A typical application was an aircraft booking system consisting of a computer and more than 2,000 terminals across the United States. The terminal was a computer Peripherals, including monitors and keyboards, without CPU and memory. With the increase of remote terminals, a front-end machine ( FEP ) is added in front of the main machine . At that time, people defined the computer network as “a system connected for the purpose of transmitting information to realize remote information processing or further achieve resource sharing”, and such a communication system already had the prototype of a network.
formative stage
The second-generation computer network from the mid-1960s to the 1970s was based on the interconnection of multiple hosts through communication lines to provide services to users. It emerged in the late 1960s. The typical representative is the ARPANET developed with the assistance of the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency . . The hosts are not directly connected by lines, but are interconnected after switching by the interface message processor ( IMP ). The IMPs and the interconnected communication lines between them are responsible for the communication tasks between the hosts, forming a communication subnet. The hosts interconnected in the communication subnet are responsible for running programs, providing resource sharing, and forming resource subnets. During this period, the concept of network was “a collection of computers with independent functions interconnected for the purpose of sharing resources with each other”, forming the basic concept of computer network.
Interconnection stage
The third-generation computer network from the late 1970s to the 1990s is an open and standardized network with a unified network architecture and compliance with international standards. After the rise of ARPANET, computer networks developed rapidly, and major computer companies successively launched their own network architectures and hardware and software products to realize these structures. Since there is no unified standard, it is very difficult to interconnect products of different manufacturers, and people urgently need an open and standardized practical network environment, so two of the most important international architectures came into being, that is, the TCP/IP system Structure and OSI Architecture of the International Organization for Standardization .
High-speed network technology stage
In the fourth generation of computer network from the 1990s to the present, due to the mature development of local area network technology and the emergence of optical fiber and high-speed network technology, the entire network is like a large computer system transparent to users, and has developed into the Internet represented by the Internet. .

occupational classification

System analyst, computer programmer, software tester, software project manager, system archit


computer repair

network class

Computer network administrators, network system designers, network integrated wiring personnel, network construction engineer

Information system

Computer operators, information system security engineers, information system managers, database system administrators, information system supervisors, information system evaluators, information resource development and management personnel, information system designe.


Semiconductor device testing workers, semiconductor device manufacturing technologists, semiconductor device manufacturing workers, semiconductor device support workers, semiconductor device packaging workers.

control class

MCU application designer, control system designer, logic control chip editor, automatic data collection and analysis analyst

application system development

design class

computer graphic designer.

business class

Web editors, computer network customer service personnel, online salespersons.


Digital video producer, digital audio producer, 3D animation producer, game art designer.


Web Courseware Maker.

The role of IT

tear down the walls that get in the way

Topic categorization may be an easy way for experts in their field, but it’s not the best in IT. In previous IT, administrators established clear and isolated areas of expertise. IT infrastructures are complex. Server administrators monitor computing hosts, storage administrators work with disks, and network personnel do wiring. Implementing parallel regions seems like the best way to optimize IT. In theory you can run as efficiently as possible, have professionals learn specialized IT skills, deploy domain-specific hardware, and manage complex resources.
There is no best candidate for a data center other than handling multiple areas of IT. When IT is organized into silos, any time a problem arises—troubleshooting application performance, competing for rack IT space, or allocating limited budget—the resulting IT bickering, finger-pointing, and political posturing wastes precious time. time and money. Despite standardized IT protocols and comprehensive validation testing by vendors, IT heterogeneous infrastructures are not interoperable.
Navigating a convoluted IT organization just to try new things can stifle business creativity and innovation, but that’s starting to change. This is a massive shift in IT organization and staffing.
Virtualization absorbs these IT silos
Virtualization plays an important role in the crumbling IT management arena. First, virtualized IT tools focus on freeing up the server domain, aggregating and pooling physical hosts, thus satisfying the idealized IT virtual machine image. This is a huge improvement. As a former systems management consultant, I remember packing enterprise data centers with more than half of the IT hosts sitting idle or rarely used, each with a handful of small (but always important) IT applications. The amount of excess supply is staggering. Doing IT virtualization can not only recover excess capacity, but also homogenize the underlying IT physical resources, thereby simplifying infrastructure management.
IT virtualization, everywhere, has developed beyond just IT server virtualization. IT storage and networking can also be virtualized at different levels. Variations of these resources can be deployed as virtual appliances, and IT hypervisors are beginning to integrate these resources directly in the kernel (such as VMware Virtual SAN). While virtualized resources aren’t the best for all workloads, we do see virtualization administrators taking on more direct control and responsibility for operating the end-to-end infrastructure.

Cloud blurs IT

If only to keep up with the external IT competition, the internal IT organization must evolve to be the best IT service provider. As an IT service provider, shift the focus to deliver value and move away from siled management through IT service delivery.
Most IT clouds will likely be hybrid clouds, meaning IT will have to take advantage of the lowest cost of running workloads to its greatest advantage. IT will need to be able to interoperate data and workloads between internal cloud infrastructure and assets, using elastic provisioning and dynamic subscription pricing. But that’s not going to happen, as long as IT is organized and independently managed silos, there will be occasional squabbles over budget.
IT Convergence looms large
Perhaps the most immediate trend toward tearing down IT silos is convergence. IT vendors pre-package existing IT servers, storage and network hardware together, usually pre-installing an IT virtualization hypervisor and some top-level unified management solutions. IT convergence tools provide plug-and-play IT infrastructure, but IT still requires deep, single expertise. The main feature is rapid deployment more than anything else – the success of IT convergence tools stems from the failure of their respective components to interoperate (or install automatically) out of the box.
Going a step further, IT hyper-converged tool providers combine servers, storage and networks all in one box. In addition to IT simplification and regional convergence, hyper-converged tools also provide internal built-in optimization and plug-and-play scale-out.
There are also product assemblies that compete with “hyperconverged reference architectures,” such as system integrators leveraging IT software-defined infrastructure on commodity servers. The key is that IT hyper-converged infrastructure does not appear as discrete islands.

IT comes down to management

For IT to all work, IT management products need to include cross-region capabilities and incorporate hybrid cloud coverage. IT management needs to move from element monitoring to ensuring the quality of service delivered. Automation, policy, and expert systems will replace many of the topics that require on-premise expertise.
So, what happens to IT organizations? IT may be reorganized around how a virtual hybrid cloud administrator manages and arranges IT application services and who does top-level resource planning and optimization of cloud services across internal and external IT middlemen, and IT infrastructure/equipment owners who Competitive private data centers will be built using converged fabric equipment.
On the application side, we also see a similar evolution of IT data utilization instead of data management, application operations instead of just programming, and IT system structures not only include hybrid solutions, but also include upstream and downstream IT relationships.

IT skills

In the IT field, IT technical experts bury their heads in dealing with technical problems in their work almost every day. When there is a problem, fix it; if someone needs help, guide them through it. But between the admin department and the communication of the users, you really need some IT skills.
IT guys have very little experience with emotional intelligence. That’s why IT people always don’t understand the relationship between people. IT people understand computers, forgetting and all the technology that few other people understand, but we don’t understand what’s most important: the people who can help us accomplish our IT goals.
There’s a huge disconnect in communication between IT professionals and everyone else. In your IT career you’ve probably heard the saying: It doesn’t matter what the IT guy says, it’s how you say it that counts. One of the things that is often overlooked around IT people is the distinction between talking to a human and confidanting to a human.
The ultimate and absolute measure of IT productivity is communication. In the eyes of those around them, many IT people are afraid of failure and fear of being underestimated. IT guys are chained to themselves and wondering why IT’s reputation isn’t as good as it thinks it is.
In IT, you have two options. You can be a persuasive IT communicator and let others stand by your side, or be an IT passive and let others dictate the direction. Paying attention to your IT communication skills can allow you to influence the way other people behave. Better IT communication skills are a decisive tool for ensuring a successful IT career.
A good IT communicator is able to have a down-to-earth conversation with someone, not just one person talking – but a two-way conversation. Do you want to earn the respect of your colleagues throughout your career? If so, get ready to be a great IT communicator. IT skills can be learned, you just have to choose to do them.

IT life cycle

The average life cycle of an IT product is about 5 years, but some applications will reside on the same hardware for longer than that.

IT value

The value created by IT equipment for the organization lies in the storage and utilization of IT data, and its intrinsic value should be weighed, not the price at which it is sold as second-hand equipment. The best time to replace hardware is when the intrinsic value of the server has decreased and the value of the work has also decreased. Automated asset management tools can help users accurately assess depreciation rates.
The intrinsic value of IT equipment is maintained because other organizations need spare parts and spare parts, but this is not the only market for used IT systems.
Reduce IT refresh and run your most critical workloads on the latest IT hardware. As opposed to selling or cleaning up old systems, IT departments can use the hardware to host non-work-critical operations until they are truly obsolete.

IT buyer’s market

Buying used IT equipment takes the guesswork out of new server pricing, optional add-on evaluations and support contracts. With the help of virtualization technology, most data center hardware can support constantly changing and diverse applications.
Used IT equipment rarely comes with a manufacturer’s warranty and support, so he needs to track spare parts for IT systems, verify quality and train staff on how to install them. IT vendors often provide additional equipment installation and services. When purchasing equipment from a used dealer or broker, it can be difficult to obtain on-time deadlines and installation services.

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