What is the meaning of design and technology?
Design is the product of civilization and creates new culture and civilization.
1. The concept of design
From the meaning of Chinese and English words alone, the fundamental meaning of design is to achieve a certain state and form a certain plan through behavior, which is a process of thinking and a process of creating a certain form and schema.
“Xinhua Dictionary”: Before doing a certain job, make plans and drawings in advance, etc.
1974: “Encyclopedia Britannica”: As long as it is engaged in conceived, planned, planned, arranged, arranged, planned, and planned for a certain purpose, it can be said to be a design.
Herbert Simon: Anyone who conceives a course of action with the goal of changing an existing situation into a desired one is designing.
Dino Dini, a master of game design at Liverpool JM University: Design is the basic structure of all created forms. From the specific form itself, whether it is a video game or a consumer product, it all serves people. He believes that the definition of design should be It is the management of limits.
Why define design? Theoretical circles believe that design criticism and design criticism can only be carried out on the basis of a relatively consistent definition, and it is difficult to develop a discipline that lacks critical criticism.
The definition of Carnegie Mellon University School of Design in the United States: Design is the process of improving an object from its existing condition to a better use condition. (This sentence may not be comprehensive, but its basic meaning is accurate – design is an activity to improve product applicability, and product applicability can be understood as including several main aspects: function, aesthetics, ergonomics, market efficiency , to facilitate production, save materials and resources.)
The Institute of Registered Designers of the United Kingdom believes that design is a force that leads to innovation and invention through the exploration of creativity.
The definition of the International Industrial Design Association Conference: Design is a creative act, and its purpose is to make the product have a comprehensive quality in the whole process including production and use, as well as in the application system where it is located. Design is thus a central element in the creative humanization of science and technology, as well as a key factor in cultural and information exchange.
2. The meaning of design:
Design is a creative activity in which human beings change the original things to make them change, gain, update and develop. Design is the process of conceiving and solving problems, which involves all valuable creative activities of human beings. 【Macro Significance of Design】
1965 Archer The systems approach used by designers: A goal-oriented problem-solving activity.
Marchett, “Mind Control in Creative Work” 1968: is the best answer to a real general need in a given situation.
Pezzy’s “Architecture for Human Use”) 1966: An imaginary leap from existing facts to future possibilities.
Leeswick “Introduction to the Engineering Design Center” 1965: Design is a creative activity – creating something unprecedented, new and beneficial
The relatively consistent interpretation of “design” in foreign design theory circles is: the planning process of formulating a deductive basis for a thing or a system is design.
The conditions for the emergence of industrial design are mass-produced modern large-scale industrial production and market competition, and its design objects are products mass-produced in industrialized methods.
Industrial design is the product of commodity economy, and it can stimulate consumption. Due to the cultural characteristics of industrial design, its changes reflect the level of material production and science and technology of the times, and also reflect a certain social ideology, and are closely related to society’s politics, economy, culture, art, etc. relation.
In the process of industrial design development, the twin themes of inheritance and change have been appearing alternately in different forms, and fierce confrontations have occurred from time to time.
Human design activities can be roughly divided into three stages, namely, the budding stage of design, the handicraft stage and the industrial design stage.
Design reflects the thoughts of the times. It not only reflects the evolution of people’s lifestyle and aesthetic consciousness, but also reflects the changes of social production level and human’s status in nature.
Industrial Design: Refers to the design of products that are mass-produced by machines.
The main purpose: to solve various problems in the form, performance, ergonomics, engineering technology, marketing, brand establishment and development of the product, so that the product can adapt to the above various aspects to the greatest extent possible. requirements to meet the needs of the market.
The objects of industrial design are generally relatively small products, excluding such huge objects as buildings.
Industrial design is the process of creating concepts, developing concepts, and gradually optimizing the functions, values, and shapes of products for industrially produced consumer products, with the aim of achieving a win-win situation for both users and manufacturers.
The real origin of industrial design is the thirst for more and better commodities in an affluent society, but the original form of labor organization and production technology cannot satisfy this thirst.
In 1950, Medward-Kaufman-Johnny put forward 12 definitions of modern design: [Definition after large-scale industrial production]
1) It should meet the needs of modern design
2) Should reflect the spirit of the times
3) Sustained nourishment should be drawn from the ever-evolving pure arts and sciences (self-development)
4) New materials and new technologies should be flexibly used and continuously developed (advancing with the times)
5) Through the use of appropriate materials and technical means, continuously enrich the product’s shape, texture, color and other effects (innovation in appearance)
6) The intention of the object should be clearly expressed, and must not be ambiguous (clear concept)
7) It should reflect the characteristics and aesthetics of the materials used that are different from other materials (loyal to the materials)
8) The production method of the product should be clearly stated, and deceptive means that are feasible on the surface but not suitable for mass production should not be used (honesty)
9) In terms of practicality, materials, and craftsmanship, it should give people visual satisfaction, especially the satisfaction of the overall effect (effect display)
10) It should give people a simple and clean aesthetic feeling and avoid cumbersome processing
11) Must be familiar with and master the functions of mechanical equipment
12) While pursuing a luxurious atmosphere, consumers’ desire for restraint and price issues must be taken into account (high quality and low price)
1957 International Federation of Industrial Design Societies (ICSID) 1964 The modeling quality of industrial products, these modeling qualities are not only external features, but mainly the relationship between structure and function, he transforms a system into a coherent system from the perspective of producers and users Unite. Industrial design expands to include all aspects of the human environment, only limiting the possibilities of industrial production. “
【Transformation of design from objects to people】【Indicating the creative nature and significance of design; focusing on the unity of internal structure, function and appearance; The realization of practical functions is the starting point, and the use of science and technology and large-scale industrial production is the condition to achieve the purpose of being used by people. 】Fundamentally speaking, design itself is not an end. The purpose of design is people rather than things. People (needs) are the fundamental and starting point of design. Therefore, the designer’s work is firstly connected with social value, connected with people’s needs, not with material things.
Definition in 1980: As far as mass-produced industrial products are concerned, it is called industrial design to give new qualities and qualifications to materials, structures, shapes, colors, surface processing, and decorations by virtue of training, experience, and visual perception. According to the specific situation at that time, industrial designers should work on all or some of the above-mentioned industrial products, and industrial designers need to contribute their own technical knowledge and experience and visual When evaluating capabilities, this also falls under the category of industrial design. “
Peter Thomson’s 5 principles of modern design in the late 1980s:
1) Integrity: the overall integrity and systematicness of the design 2) Change principle: the product is constantly changing, adapting to people’s needs and desires 3) Design resources: the application of material resources. As a resource, designers should act according to their ability 4) Comprehensive principle: fully consider the market, consumer needs, industrial technology, etc. 5) Service principle; meet the demand principle
What is good design?
Design generally has two characteristics: functionality and aesthetics. Ease of use (functionality) and good-looking (aesthetics) are the core of our design considerations.
German contemporary design master Dieter Rams (Dieter Rams) put forward 10 principles of good design:
1. Good design is innovative
2. Good design is practical (Good design makes a product useful)
3. Good design is aesthetic
4. Good design helps a product to be understood
5. Good design is unobtrusive
6. Good design is honest
7. Good design is durable
8. Good design is thorough to the last detail
9. Good design is concerned with the environment
10. Good design is as little design as possible
In the technical situation of the 21st century, the design, form and function of some categories are different from those of the 20th century. Simple form follows function cannot be summed up in one word.